The Dangers of Shallow Rendering

In my article titled ”A Tale of Two Ideas” I discussed my method for discerning between opposing ideas and used the topic of shallow rendering as an example of a topic which has very distinct and differing opinions. Although I did not tell my opinion in the article as I didn’t want to taint the purpose of the article, I did promise to publish an article with my opinions at a later point. And now, that time has come!


Rather than making you scroll all the way to the end to see my list of reasons, they are listed succinctly in the following list. If you don’t like what you see, you won’t be forced to read any more. 🙂

  1. Shallow rendering creates additional failure points.
  2. Shallow rendering decreases confidence.
  3. Shallow rendering complicates refactoring.

Shallow rendering creates additional failure points

What is the purpose of shallow rendering in the first place? According to the Enzyme docs,

Shallow rendering is useful to constrain yourself to testing a component as a unit, and to ensure that your tests aren’t indirectly asserting on behavior of child components.

To a developer with a component driven design mindset, this sounds great since you can build your components and tests together and have confidence that your components work as expected. However, the fundamental flaw with this idea is that components which work in isolation might be integrated together incorrectly resulting in unexpected user behavior. To fix this, you are required to write additional integration tests to verify that you have integrated your components correctly. This not only increases the number of tests you must maintain, but it also overcomplicates what can be very simple testing.

A simple way to reduce additional failure points when testing is to move your tests up the component tree and test larger pieces of your application. For example, if you have a component with two child components and each of those three components has a separate set of tests, reduce it to a single set of tests using the highest level component. In addition to testing the components, this will verify that your components are properly integrated removing that additional point of failure.

Shallow rendering decreases confidence

When developing web applications, the end result is some form of user value. Whether that is a visual or functional improvement, every change that is made should either directly provide user value or remove barriers to creating user value (e.g. refactoring to enable faster iteration). Tests fit in the second category as they provide confidence that new features or changes provide the expected user value and do not cause regressions in existing user value.

So, if the goal of testing is to increase confidence that your code provides the user value it is supposed to, you should write tests that provide the highest level of confidence possible. This is where shallow rendering really breaks down. Shallow rendering might give high confidence that a single component is working correctly, but it gives little to no confidence that it results in the correct user behavior.

It is also important to mention that increased confidence doesn’t necessarily result in less time spent writing tests. Before you panic, that’s okay! The most likely outcome of increased confidence is better testing coverage. Since you won’t spend as much time fixing false positives/negatives, you will have more time to test known edge cases and perform exploratory testing to find other edge cases.

Shallow rendering complicates refactoring

Refactoring is a necessary part of software development and often occurs many times during the lifetime of an application. When refactoring code, you should be able to lean heavily on your test suite to verify that your changes did not cause regressions in your applications. However, shallow rendering complicates this due to its tight coupling of components and tests. To understand this better, let me give an example.

Consider a React component named UserDetails which displays user information (i.e. name, email, phone number) in a list. The phone number is passed to a separate component named FormattedPhone. During initial development of the component, I added a test that verifies the UserDetails component renders a FormattedPhone component with the correct props. Later, I decide to remove the FormattedPhone component and format the phone in the UserDetails component. Since I used shallow rendering, my test breaks since it was expecting to find a FormattedPhone component. Not only do the tests now require changes, but they don’t give me confidence that the changes to the components maintained the expected user behavior.

A better way

If you are convinced that shallow rendering is not a good testing practice, the next big question is what to do instead? While there are many ways to answer this question, my current thoughts are best described with the following recommendations:

  1. Replace shallow rendering with full DOM rendering. If you use Enzyme, this means replacing shallow with mount.
  2. Think less about props/state and more about user behavior. Rather than directly interacting with your components props, instead try rendering additional DOM elements which you can interact with which in turn affect your component. This is more similar to a real application where user interaction affects your component.
  3. Never under any circumstance use APIs which allow you to directly affect component state (e.g. Enzyme’s setState method). This does not accurately reflect user behavior. Directly modifying props is also not ideal, but it is less problematic than directly modifying state.
  4. Try out React Testing Library which does not support shallow rendering and has an API which prevents many common testing patterns which test implementation detail. Although not required to write good tests, I have found it very helpful in increasing the quality of my tests and the confidence they provide.